The Internet of Things (IoT) shall be able to incorporate transparently and seamlessly a large number of different and heterogeneous end systems, while providing open access to selected subsets of data for the development of a plethora of digital services. All rights reserved. For instance, the NFC transceive, integrated in last-generation smartphones may be used to identify, tagged objects, while the geolocation service provided by most, common operating systems for mobile devices can enrich the. This paper is intended to serve as a summary review of the collective experience the structural engineering community has gained from the use of wireless sensors and sensor networks for monitoring structural performance and health. Furthermore, mobile devices can provide access to the IoT in different, e.g., 1) through an IP connection provided by the cellular data-, link service or 2) setting up a direct connection with some objects, by using short-range wireless technologies, such as Bluetooth. Even if this system is a simple application, of the IoT concept, it still involves a number of different devices, and link layer technologies, thus being representative of most of, the critical issues that need to be taken care of when designing an, urban IoT. 2, we can distinguish, three distinct functional layers, namely (i) Data, (ii) Application/, Transport, and (iii) Network, that may require dedicated entities, to operate the transcoding between constrained and uncon-. Internet … In the following, we present. Res. From December 1996 to January 2002, he, was with Telit Mobile Terminals, Trieste, Italy, and. We then propose a viable approach to scale business within that ecosystem. We start describing, the web service approach for the design of IoT services, which, requires the deployment of suitable protocol layers in the differ-, ent elements of the network, as shown in the protocol stacks. In 1993, he joined the Faculty of the Dipartimento di. In that sense, the city authorities have already issued speci, amount of noise in the city centre at speci, can offer a noise monitoring service to measure the, noise produced at any given hour in the places that adopt the, service [14]. This goes in the, direction indicated by the European directive for energy, ciency improvement in the next years. Also, wireless sensors have limitations that require novel system architectures and modes of operation. We describe the system architecture and discuss the fundamental technical choices at the base of the project. neering from the University of Padova, Padova, Italy, He was a Visiting Scholar with the Department. into a single, dedicated department in the city [7]. This article discusses the architectural evolution required to ensure that the rollout and deployment of smart city technologies is smooth through acknowledging and integrating the strengths of both the system architectures proposed. And the energy transmitting device with multiple antennas simultaneously receives information from the energy harvesting (EH) device. subsets of data for the development of a plethora of digital services. In this paper, we investigate the secure beamforming design in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) en-abled Internet of Things (IoT) networks, where a controller transmits confidential messages to multiple actuators and a cooperative controller acts as a jammer to prevent a potential eavesdropper from wiretapping the information. The, connection to the backend services is provided by common, unconstrained communication technologies, optical, parent communication with CoAP devices. RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks, Architectural Implications of Smart City Business Models: An Evolutionary Perspective, Platform Business Models for Smart Cities: From Control and Value to Governance and Public Value, WebIoT: A web application framework for the internet of things, Smart Grids - Energy Storage Optimization, Padova Smart City: An urban Internet of Things experimentation, Edge Computing Based IoT for Smart Cities. 2©Sensinode 2013About SensinodeVision•The Internet of Things (IoT) is the next evolution of the Internet where devices of alltypes and capabilities are Internet … promote the actions of the local government toward the citizens. Dual-functional quantum-dots light emitting diodes (QLEDs) have been fabricated using solution processable vanadium oxide (V 2 O 5 ) hole injection layer to control the carrier transport behavior. 4 and 5 report an example of the type of data that can be, collected with the Padova Smart City system. This mapping allows for a customized, designed-for-purpose solution which can meet the security requirements for IoT based smart homes. The discussed technologies, are close to being standardized, and industry players are already, active in the production of devices that take advantage of these, technologies to enable the applications of interest, such as those, described in Section II. collection, salubrity of hospitals, and school. order to create the correct entries in the NATP look-up table. A smart city is developed, deployed and maintained with the help of Internet of Things (IoT). Building a general architecture for the IoT is hence a very complex, task, mainly because of the extremely large variety of devices, link, layer technologies, and services that may be involved in such a, that, while still being quite a broad category, are characterized by, to support the Smart City vision, which aims at exploiting the most, advanced communication technologies to support added-value, services for the administration of the city and for the citizens. He is now with TeSAN, 36100 Vicenza, Italy. Moreover, CoAP can easily interoperate with HTTP b. On the technical side, the most relevant issue consists in the, noninteroperability of the heterogeneous technologies currently, used in city and urban developments. The device shows selectable functionalities of photo-detecting and light-emitting behaviors according to the different operating voltage conditions. This paper presents the design and construction of solar powered automatic wastebin, in other to ensure effective and sustainable management of waste. We also describe the available ICT technologies and finally exemplify all findings by means of a sustainable smart city application. LLN routers Furthermore, that can ease the interaction with the IoT objects, and, The framework discussed in this paper has already been, successfully applied to a number of different use cases in the, context of IoT systems. Then, we analyze the data collected by the system and show how simple data processing techniques can be used to gain insights on the functioning of the monitored system, public traffic lighting in our specific case, as well as other information concerning the urban environment. The interfacial electronic structure of the device prepared with different concentration V 2 O 5 solution was measured in detail using x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The urban IoT may provide a distributed database of building, structural integrity measurements, collected by suitable sensors, located in the buildings, such as vibration and deformation, sensors to monitor the building stress, atmospheric agent sensors, in the surrounding areas to monitor pollution levels, and tem-, perature and humidity sensors to have a complete characteriza-, tion of the environmental conditions [11]. Most of these barriers pertain to an ongoing battle between two main schools of thought for system architecture, ICT and telecommunications, proposed for data management and service creation. Such an architecture would unleash the still largely unexpressed potential of the microfluidic technology, producing a leap forward in many fields, included the pharmaceutical, chemical, and medical sectors. and understand the impact of light earthquakes on city buildings. O v e r v i e w Smart City Concept Urban IoT Architecture Experimental Study: PADOVA Smart City Conclusion Reference Internet of Things for Smart Cities … The process of collected wastes, separated it, and transports the containers daily and quickly to avoid any prospect of a spread of diseases is a complex process. This, service can hence improve both the quiet of the nights in the city, installation of sound detectors or environmental microphones is, quite controversial, because of the obvious privacy concern, monitoring, a possible Smart City service that can be enabled by, monitoring service, an urban IoT may provide a service to, monitor the energy consumption of the whole city, thus enabling, authorities and citizens to get a clear and detailed view of the, amount of energy required by the different services (public, cooling of public buildings, and so on). Sci. In particular, effective collection is crucial for classes of smart city services that require a timely delivery of urgent data such as environmental monitoring, homeland security, and city surveillance. It resembles the classical, Network Address and Port Translation (NAPT) service currently, supported in many LANs to provide Internet access to a number, of hosts in a private network by sharing a common public IPv4, address, which is used to address the packets over the public. Thin lines show the actual readings, while, thick lines are obtained by applying a moving average. high loss rates, low data rates, and instability. an urban IoT. In order to properly work, such a, service needs to include the street lights into the Smart City, infrastructure. also grateful to the engineers of Patavina Technologies s.r.l. The proposed architecture was implemented and tested to improve the integrity, confidentiality , availability, authorization and privacy of smart homes as well as some inherited features , including transparency and interoperability. System architecture of “ Padova Smart City. This solution is designed to overcome reported security limitations in commonly used permissioned blockchains approaches. : Making Connec. In the rest of this section, specify in greater detail the requirements at each of the three, functional layers in order to guarantee interoperability among the, tectures based on web services, data exchange is typically, accompanied by a description of the transferred content by, means of semantic representation languages, of which the, eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is probably the most, common. The effect of imperfect CSI is also studied and investigated. generated by the service, maximum tolerable delay, powering, and an estimate of the feasibility of each service, with currently available technologies. This, incompatible proposals for the practical realization of IoT sys-, tems. systems development for the Internet of Things (IoT). Internet of Things in Smart Cities By: R. Srinivasan. selected subsets of data for the development of a plethora of requires IEEE permission. [Online]. then, until May 2003, was with Microcell A/S, Copenaghen, Denmark. inside the LLN towards a central control point). Reduce the amount of waste created.The other side of smart … To such an extent, an urban IoT can provide, means to monitor the quality of the air in crowded areas, parks, or, provided to let health applications running on joggers, connected to the infrastructure. of CSE, NSS College of Engineering. depicted in Fig. and for the citizens. This technique involves, a particular type of HTTP-CoAP cross proxy, the revers, HTTP/IPv4 client and as the original client to the CoAP/IPv6, web server. It may be worth remarking that systems that do not adopt the, EXI/CoAP/6LoWPAN protocol stack can still be seamlessly, included in the urban IoT system, provided that they are capable, of interfacing with all the layers of the left-hand side of the, In the protocol architecture shown in Fig. This work paves a new way for breaking QDAS performance limitations that are bounded by the finite frequency resource. We describe the, drive the adoption of urban IoT by local governm. Their interconnects are characterized by A border router, which is a, device directly attached to the 6LoWPAN network, transparently, performs the conversion between IPv6 and 6LoWPAN, trans-, lating any IPv6 packet intended for a node in the 6LoWPAN, network into a packet with 6LoWPAN header compression, format, and operating the inverse translation in the opposite, While the deployment of a 6LoWPAN border router enables, transparent interaction between IoT nodes and any IPv6 host in, the Internet, the interaction with IPv4-only hosts remains an, meta-data available in the packet. pollution as much as carbon oxide (CO) is for air. Bluetooth SIG, Adopted Bluetooth Core Speci, https://www.bluetooth.org/Technical/Speci, backend servers, located in the control center, where data are. This objective, communication infrastructure that provides uni, economical access to a plethora of public services, thus unleash-, ing potential synergies and increasing transparency to the citi-. so that proper dimensioning of the backend system is required. These dense populations combined with complex infrastructure create huge opportunities to improve billions of lives and generate new businesses as smart cities… This is achieved by clustering the antennas into two MIMO subsystems: one for information transmission (IT) and another for EH. These protocols are mirrored in the constrained, protocol stack by their low-complexity counterparts, i.e., the, Protocol (CoAP), and 6LoWPAN, which are suitable, very constrained devices. Internet Of Things For Smart Cities … Padova, Padova, Italy. Over the course of the article, we draw two major observations, which are seen to facilitate sustainable smart city development. 4 0 obj new services upon those provided by the IoT [5]. Once, addressed by an HTTP request, the proxy requires the resolution, of the domain name contained in the HTTP Host header to the, IPv6 DNS server, which replies with the IPv6 address that, can then forward the HTTP message to the intended IoT via, ping technique is also described in [23]. Example of data collected by Padova Smart City: (a) temperature and (b) humidity. This paper hence provides a comprehensive This challenge calls for interdisciplinary competences, which range from telecommunication engineering to physics and chemistry, and can open the way to a number of exciting research trails! access and interoperability of the IoT nodes with the Internet. For implementation-friendly antenna clustering and MIMO precoding, we propose two methods: (i) a sub-optimal method based on relaxation of objective function in a combinatorial optimization problem, and (ii) a hybrid deep reinforcement learning (DRL)-based method. Everything You wanted to Know about Smart Cities The Internet of Things is the backbone. Moreover, our design does not require any modifications to the protocol stacks of unconstrained nodes. Indeed, Perception-Action-Communication (PAC) loops, or Perception-Action loops closed over a communication channel, are a critical component of multi-robot systems. At this scale, fluids may exhibit specific behaviors that are unobserved at macro scales. The vast increase in quantity and types of solid and poisonous waste due to economic growth, population growth and industrial pollution specifically in Nigeria, is becoming a problem. Thanks to the wildly innovative Internet of Things (IoT) solutions, many are already active and expanding rapidly. While the schema-less encoding is gen, directly from the XML data and can be decoded by any EXI, entity without any prior knowledge about the data, the schema-, informed encoding assumes that the two EXI processors share an, XML Schema before actual encoding and decoding can take, place. traffic flows include point-to-point (between devices inside the 1 The authors of this Blueprint often use the term Smart Community´ in place of Smart City´ to be inclusive of counties, special districts, and states that are within the scope of the Smart City … The proposed system will save time, money and efforts compared to the recent process of the waste management system and improve the society quality as all. The smart cities have become an emerging phenomena with rapid urban growth and boost in … endobj In archi-, nes two types of encoding, namely schema-less, ers to the XML tags in the schema and build the EXI, ne an XML Schema for the messages involved in the, IPv4 is the leading addressing technology, c IPv6 host using an IPv4 address and other, c destination port carried by the packet. Conf. This service is co-, located on the switchboard gateway in the Padova Smart City. Waste has a negative impact in the society quality which smart city aims to improve it. The four plots, show the temperature, humidity, light, and benzene readings, over a period of 7 days. the potentially massive amount of data gathered by the IoT, making it possible to separate the information, their nature and relevance and easing the creation of new, the gateways, whose role is to interconnect the end devices, to the main communication infrastructure of the system. In this paper, we focus specifically to an urban IoT system that, while still being quite a broad category, are characterized by their specific application domain. … Logged in as ... the technical solutions associated with a broad‐based deployment of IoT in urban settings to enjoy the benefits of a smart city. He is now with Institute IMDEA. %PDF-1.5 While, on the one hand, the huge address space of IPv6 makes, it possible to solve the addressing issues in IoT; on the other, hand, it introduces overheads that are not compatible with the, scarce capabilities of constrained nodes. in a standard and low complexity manner, thus guaranteeing easy. The change of gap state position enables to fabricate a dual-functional QLEDs. Nevertheless, the size of XML messages is often, too large for the limited capacity of typical devices for the, IoT. and are commonly used by regular Internet hosts, such as XML, FP7 European project, SENSEI - Integrating the Physical with the Digital, World of the Network of the Future [Online]. This system shall make it possible to. The proposed architecture contains four layers: Cloud storage, Hyperledger fabric, Hyperledger composer, and a smart home layer. The realization of such a service requires that air quality and, pollution sensors be deployed across the city and that the sensor. The same, nal IoT node involved in the request. Furthermore, the self-interference (SI) signal at the EH device caused by the FD mode of operation is harvested by the device. During this period, he was involved in many, European- and Italian-funded projects, including: Ambient Networks, IoT-Ar-. The information systems in Smart Homes are mainly based on sharing information through smart devices (IoT) and embedded sensors. A research paper on Internet of Things %���� Smart cities are creating emerging innovation in academia, industry, and government. This database can be made publicly accessible in order to make, the citizens aware of the care taken in preserving the city, historical heritage. The world is moving forward at a fast hop, and the credit goes to ever growing technology. Manuscript received November 10, 2013; revised February 06, 2014;accepted, February 11, 2014. <> Both of these system architectures represent a certain type of value chain and the legacy perspective of the respective players that wish to enter the smart city arena. context information associated to that object. All books are in clear copy here, and all files are secure so don't worry about it. It remains open for 4 minutes and closes again. Available: http://www.w3.org/TR/exi/. A generic framework for building IoT web applications, according to the guidelines described in this section h, proposed in [21], where the authors also suggest exploiti, Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) capabilities of, modern web browsers that allow for a direct communication, full internetworking of the protocol stack and the open data, crosses the Internet nowadays is carried at the application layer, by HTTP over TCP. In this regard, we, describe the technical solutions adopted for the realization of the, IoT island and report some of the measurements that have been, The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Another important aspect of the proposed solution is the mapping of the attributes of a smart home to those from the hyperledger composer. We also discuss a practical example for the establishment of end-to-end secure channels between constrained and unconstrained devices. as General Manager of Patavina Technologies. Platform business models for smart cities: Intelligent parking lot application using. <>/XObject<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.2 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Between Citizens, Data Gov., evaluation of vehicle-based mobile sensor networks for traf. The proxy logic can, be extended to better support monitoring applications and limit, instance, it is possible to specify a list of resources that need to be, monitored, so that the server can autonomously update the, entries in a cache related to those devices. 8th IEEE Int. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information. Personal use is also permitted, but republication/redistribution. Until May 2013, he served. The device was perfectly turned off in a reverse bias, while an increase of photocurrent was observed during the illumination of 520 nm wavelength light on the device. Safeguarding security and privacy remains a major challenge with regards to the Internet of Things (IoT) primarily due to the large scale and distribution of IoT networks. The, database makes it possible to integrate the data received by any, for. Our framework leverages on the following principles: thing-centric design, modularity and web service communications. of anything from a few dozen to thousands of routers. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6282. This document Finally, we, describe the heterogeneous set of devices that concur to the, Although in the IoT domain many different standards are still, struggling to be the reference one and the most adopted, in this, open and royalty-free, are based on Internet best practices, and, The IETF standards for IoT embrace a web service architec-, ture for IoT services, which has been widely documented in the, can be extended to IoT nodes, through the adoption of the web-, (ReST) [18]. In fact, while the range of design options, for IoT systems is rather wide, the set of open and standardized, furthermore, have reached a level of maturity that, practical realization of IoT solutions and services, starting from, prevents a massive adoption of the IoT paradigm. In this paper, we present and discuss the Padova Smart City system, an experimental realization of an urban IoT system designed within the Smart City framework and deployed in the city of Padova, Italy. https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-castellani-core-http-mapping-02. ”. As discussed in [20], a general, purpose schema-informed EXI processor can be easily integrated, even in very constrained devices, enabling them to interpret EXI, formats and, hence, making it possible to build multipurpose IoT, nodes even out of very constrained devices. Smart Cities are the Internet of Things 1. 22 IEEE INTERNET OF THINGS JOURNAL, VOL. endobj The device emitted a bright green light at the wavelength of 536 nm, and with the maximum luminance of 31,668 cd/m ² in a forward bias of 8.6 V. Meanwhile, the device could operate as a photodetector in a reverse bias condition. For this purpose, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology, which has been widely used in communication/radar systems, is introduced into QDAS in this paper. Full Version is available at: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/88475 Guided By, Mr. Kiran V K, Asst. The moni-, toring of the correct operation of the bulbs is performed through, photometer sensors that directly measure the intensity of the light, emitted by the lamps (or, actually, by any source whose light, reaches the sensor) at regular time intervals or upon request. particular, at daytime, the measure reaches the saturation value, while during nighttime, the values are more irregular, due. the participation of citizens in public matters [9]. IoT nodes may be, powering mode, networking role (relay or leaf), sensor/actuator, equipment, and supported link layer technologies. In order to obtain such a, service, power draw monitoring devices must be integrate, the power grid in the city. The large deployment of Internet of things (IoT) is actually enabling smart city projects and initiatives all over the world. Furthermore, by enabling easy access, and interaction with a wide variety of devices such as, for, instance, home appliances, surveillance cameras, monitoring, foster the development of a number of applications that make use, of the potentially enormous amount and variety of data generated. Finally, we describe a typical HealthCare application for the IoT realized using WebIoT. lamppost and, hence, optimize the maintenance plan. <> cantly smaller. California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA, in 1998. he joined the School of Engineering of the University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy, where he became a Professor in 2000. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is verified by the simulation results. These links usually, exhibit long latencies, mainly due to two factors: 1) the intrins, cally low transmission rate at the physical layer and 2) the power-, saving policies implemented by the nodes to save energy, which. The target application consists of a system for collecting, environmental data and monitoring the public street lighting, by means of wireless nodes, equipped with different kinds, sensors, placed on street light poles and connected, through a gateway unit. In summary, ROS-NetSim is (i) Transparent to the ROS target application, (ii) Agnostic to the specific network and physics simulator being used, and (iii) Tunable in fidelity and complexity. To this end, we first review involved stakeholders and the ecosystem at large. However, the verbosity and complexity of, native HTTP make it unsuitable for a straight deployment on, constrained IoT devices. by proximity reading, which can be used for logistics. rst group includes all the traditional LAN, MAN, ber optic, broadband Power Line Communication (PLC), and, nally describe the devices that are essential to realize an, The widespread acquaintance of people with web, nd the devices in charge of producing the data, ed based on a wide number of characteristics, such as, It is the leaf part of the system where IoT nodes, The gateway has the role of interfacing the, c injected into the IoT peripheral network. are characterized by their specific application domain. A servomotor is triggered to open in the sense that the waste can be trapped as soon as it receives a signal from the microcontroller. system, though it could also be placed in the backend servers, thus making it possible to control multiple gateways by using a, resources that need to be monitored in time by communicating, with the HTTP-CoAP proxy server, which in turn takes care of, retrieving the required data from the proper source. When channel state information (CSI) is perfect, we design the secure beamforming by developing an iterative optimization algorithm based on minimum mean square error (MMSE) method. PDF | On Feb 10, 2017, Yasir Mehmood and others published Internet-of-Things Based Smart Cities: Recent Advances and Challenges | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate First, independent smart city departments (or the equivalent) need to emerge, much like today's well accepted IT departments, which clearly decouple the political element of the improved city servicing from the underlying technologies. Furthermore, since, sensor nodes do not support CoAP services, the gateway also, operates as the sink node for the sensor cloud, collecting all the, data that need to be exported to the backend services. D. Peintner, and R. Kyusakov, Eds., 2nd ed.

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